Improvement and Silviculture of Oaks in Hungary. Solymos, R. 50(6):607–614.
Improvement and Silviculture of Oaks in Hungary [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The most important tree species in Hungary are the indigenous oak species (Quercus sessiliflora, Q robur, Q cerris). They form mixed stands, most frequently with hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvatica). They occupy nearly 35\,% of the Hungarian forests. For oak timber, the allowable cut exceeds demand; it is therefore possible to export the more valuable mixtures. Producing valuable oak timber is of great importance for Hungarian forestry. Veneer logs of good quality can be harvested from mixed 2-storied oak stands (Carpineto quercetum, Querceto fa-getum). The majority of these stands should be regenerated naturally. The success of regeneration depends on the acorn yield, the opening of crown closure, as well as the game population. The number of seedlings per ha varies between 50 and 100 thousand, which should be decreased to 150-450 stems per ha by the rotation age of 100-130 yr, depending on site quality. The results of research on natural regeneration and thinning are employed in forestry practice. The yield tables and tending models for unmixed and mixed oak stands have become basic references for valuable oak timber production. The importance of oaks in Hungarian forestry will remain decisive. The recent oak decline has caused considerable damage and is only improving slowly. This does not, however, reduce the importance of oaks which are not only a source of valuable timber, but also an indigenous structural part of stable forest ecosystems.

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