An Analysis of Sequential Patterns of Instruction in Piano Lessons. Speer, D., R. Journal of Research in Music Education, 42(1):14, 1994.
abstract   bibtex   
The purpose of this study was to investigate verbal behaviors of independent piano teachers in private lessons. Forty-seven lessons from 25 teachers were recorded on audiotape, scripted, and analyzed for time spent in teacher presentation, student participation, and teacher reinforcement. Frequencies were obtained for complete/correct, complete/incorrect, and incomplete teaching patterns observed. Results indicated significant differences due to student age in presentation of musical information, teacher talk, teacher coaching, and student participation. Students perceived as “average” by teachers received significantly more directive comments than “better” students. Significant interactions were observed for verbal reinforcement by student and teacher experience. Teachers with more than 18.5 years of experience were more disapproving to students with more than 3.5 years of playing experience. Less-experienced teachers were more specific with approvals than their more-experienced colleagues. Frequencies of complete/correct patterns of teaching were significantly lower than other patterns observed.
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 title = {An Analysis of Sequential Patterns of Instruction in Piano Lessons},
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 year = {1994},
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 pages = {14},
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 abstract = {The purpose of this study was to investigate verbal behaviors of independent piano teachers in private lessons. Forty-seven lessons from 25 teachers were recorded on audiotape, scripted, and analyzed for time spent in teacher presentation, student participation, and teacher reinforcement. Frequencies were obtained for complete/correct, complete/incorrect, and incomplete teaching patterns observed. Results indicated significant differences due to student age in presentation of musical information, teacher talk, teacher coaching, and student participation. Students perceived as “average” by teachers received significantly more directive comments than “better” students. Significant interactions were observed for verbal reinforcement by student and teacher experience. Teachers with more than 18.5 years of experience were more disapproving to students with more than 3.5 years of playing experience. Less-experienced teachers were more specific with approvals than their more-experienced colleagues. Frequencies of complete/correct patterns of teaching were significantly lower than other patterns observed.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Speer, Donald R.},
 journal = {Journal of Research in Music Education},
 number = {1}
}
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