Comparison and Evaluation of the T-Lohi MAC for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Syed, A. A., Ye, W., & Heidemann, J. IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communication, 26(12):1731–1743, December, 2008.
Comparison and Evaluation of the T-Lohi MAC for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
This paper introduces T-Lohi, a new class of distributed and energy-efficient media-access protocols (MAC) for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSN). MAC design for UWSN faces significant challenges. For example, acoustic communication suffers from latencies five orders-of-magnitude larger than radio communication, so a naive CSMA MAC would require very long listen time resulting in low throughput and poor energy efficiency. In this paper, we first identify unique characteristics in underwater networking that may affect all MACs, such as space-time uncertainty and deafness conditions. We then develop T-Lohi employing a novel tone-based contention resolution mechanism that exploits space-time uncertainty and high latency to detect collisions and \emphcount contenders, achieving good throughput across all offered loads. T-Lohi exploits a low-power wake-up receiver to significantly reduce energy consumption. We evaluate design choices and protocol performance through extensive simulation. Finally, we compare T-Lohi against a few canonical MAC protocols. The results show that the energy cost of packet transmission is within~3–9% of optimal, and that Lohi achieves good channel utilization, within~30% utilization of the theoretical maximum. We also show that Lohi is stable and fair under both low and very high offered loads. Finally, we compare Lohi with other alternatives, including TDMA, CSMA, and ALOHA. Except for TDMA under heavy load, Lohi provides the best utilization in all cases, and it is always the most energy efficient.
@Article{Syed08b,
	author = "Affan A. Syed and Wei Ye and John Heidemann",
	title = 	"Comparison and Evaluation of the T-Lohi MAC for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks",
	journal = 	"IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communication",
	year = 		2008,
	sortdate = "2008-12-01",
	project = "ilense, snuse, ortun, cisoft",
	jsubject = "sensornet_high_latency",
	volume =	26,
	number =	12,
	month =		dec,
	pages =		"1731--1743",
	location =	"johnh: pafile",
	keywords =	"Lohi, underwater MAC, acoustic networks",
	supporting = "The simulator used in this paper is available at
                         \url{http://www.isi.edu/ilense/software/}.",
	doi =		"10.1109/JSAC.2008.081212",
	myorganization =	"USC/Information Sciences Institute",
	copyrightholder = "IEEE",
	copyrightterms = "	Personal use of this material is permitted.  However, 	permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising 	or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works         for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, 	or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works 	must be obtained from the IEEE. ",
	url = "http://www.isi.edu/%7ejohnh/PAPERS/Syed08b.html",
	pdfurl = "http://www.isi.edu/%7ejohnh/PAPERS/Syed08b.pdf",
	abstract = "
This paper introduces T-Lohi, a new class of distributed and
energy-efficient media-access protocols (MAC) for underwater acoustic
sensor networks (UWSN).  MAC design for UWSN faces significant
challenges. For example, acoustic communication suffers from latencies
five orders-of-magnitude larger than radio communication, so a naive
CSMA MAC would require very long listen time resulting in low
throughput and poor energy efficiency.  In this paper, we first
identify unique characteristics in underwater networking that may
affect all MACs, such as space-time uncertainty and deafness
conditions.  We then develop T-Lohi employing a novel tone-based
contention resolution mechanism that exploits space-time uncertainty
and high latency to detect collisions and \emph{count contenders},
achieving good throughput across all offered loads.  T-Lohi exploits a
low-power wake-up receiver to significantly reduce energy consumption.
We evaluate design choices and protocol performance through extensive
simulation.  Finally, we compare T-Lohi against a few canonical MAC
protocols.  The results show that the energy cost of packet
transmission is within~3--9\% of optimal, and that Lohi achieves good
channel utilization, within~30\% utilization of the theoretical
maximum.  We also show that Lohi is stable and fair under both low and
very high offered loads.  Finally, we compare Lohi with other
alternatives, including TDMA, CSMA, and ALOHA.  Except for TDMA under
heavy load, Lohi provides the best utilization in all cases, and it is
always the most energy efficient.
",
}

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