Noncontact mapping of the left ventricle: insights from validation with transmural contact mapping. Thiagalingam, A., Wallace, E., Boyd, A., Eipper, V., Campbell, C., Byth, K., Ross, D., & Kovoor, P. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol, 27(5):570--578, May, 2004.
  author =       "A. Thiagalingam and E.M. Wallace and A.C. Boyd and
                 V.E. Eipper and C.R. Campbell and K. Byth and D.L. Ross
                 and P. Kovoor",
  title =        "Noncontact mapping of the left ventricle: insights
                 from validation with transmural contact mapping.",
  journal =      "Pacing Clin Electrophysiol",
  year =         "2004",
  month =        may,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "570--578",
  robnote =      "It is not clear whether the noncontact electrograms
                 obtained using the EnSite system in the left ventricle
                 resemble most closely endocardial, intramural, or
                 epicardial contact electrograms or a summation of
                 transmural electrograms. This study compared unipolar
                 virtual electrograms from the EnSite system with
                 unipolar contact electrograms from transmural plunge
                 needle electrodes using a 256-channel mapping system.
                 The study also evaluated the effects of differing
                 activation sites (endocardial, intramural, or
                 epicardial). A grid of 50-60 plunge needles was
                 positioned in the left ventricles of eight male sheep.
                 Correlations between contact and noncontact
                 electrograms were calculated on 32,242 electrograms.
                 Noncontact electrograms correlated equally well in
                 morphology and accuracy of timing with endocardial
                 (0.88 +/- 0.15), intramural (0.87 +/- 0.15), epicardial
                 (0.88 +/- 0.15), and transmural summation contact
                 electrograms (0.89 +/- 0.14) during sinus rhythm,
                 endocardial pacing, and epicardial pacing. There was a
                 nonlinear relationship between noncontact electrogram
                 accuracy as measured by correlation with the contact
                 electrogram and distance from the multielectrode array
                 (MEA): beyond 40 mm accuracy decreased rapidly. The
                 accuracy of noncontact electrograms also decreased with
                 increasing distance from the equator of the MEA.
                 Virtual electrograms from noncontact mapping of normal
                 left ventricles probably represent a summation of
                 transmural activation. Noncontact mapping has similar
                 accuracy with either endocardial or epicardial sites of
                 origin of electrical activity provided the MEA is
                 within 40 mm of the recording site.",
  bibdate =      "Sun Mar 12 13:30:51 2006",

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