Biological Flora of the British Isles: Euonymus Europaeus L. Thomas, P. A.; El-Barghathi, M.; and Polwart, A. 99(1):345–365.
Biological Flora of the British Isles: Euonymus Europaeus L. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
1. This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Euonymus europaeus that are relevant to understand its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history, and conservation. 2.Euonymus europaeus (Spindle tree) is a native gynodioecious deciduous shrub whose distribution is mostly associated with fertile soil at higher pH values. It is frequently found in hedgerows and woodland edges but also in woodland as an understorey shrub, often with Fraxinus excelsior, Acer campestre and Quercus species, and in open scrub over limestone with Cornus sanguinea. Its seed is widely dispersed by birds and rodents. 3.Euonymus europaeus is winter hardy and shade tolerant and, when young, its green shoots with stomata fix c. 15\,% of its CO2. The aril is eaten by a range of animals but the seeds are poisonous and the whole plant contains compounds of medicinal and veterinary value. 4.Euonymus europaeus acts as the winter host to two important crop pests: the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) which feeds on field beans (Vicia faba) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), and the peach potato aphid/green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) a widespread pest of a large number of crops. Despite removal of E. europaeus from hedgerows and woodlands in the past, its present populations appear stable.
@article{thomasBiologicalFloraBritish2011,
  title = {Biological {{Flora}} of the {{British Isles}}: {{Euonymus}} Europaeus {{L}}.},
  author = {Thomas, Peter A. and El-Barghathi, M. and Polwart, A.},
  date = {2011-01},
  journaltitle = {Journal of Ecology},
  volume = {99},
  pages = {345--365},
  issn = {0022-0477},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01760.x},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01760.x},
  abstract = {1. This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Euonymus europaeus that are relevant to understand its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history, and conservation. 2.Euonymus europaeus (Spindle tree) is a native gynodioecious deciduous shrub whose distribution is mostly associated with fertile soil at higher pH values. It is frequently found in hedgerows and woodland edges but also in woodland as an understorey shrub, often with Fraxinus excelsior, Acer campestre and Quercus species, and in open scrub over limestone with Cornus sanguinea. Its seed is widely dispersed by birds and rodents. 3.Euonymus europaeus is winter hardy and shade tolerant and, when young, its green shoots with stomata fix c. 15\,\% of its CO2. The aril is eaten by a range of animals but the seeds are poisonous and the whole plant contains compounds of medicinal and veterinary value. 4.Euonymus europaeus acts as the winter host to two important crop pests: the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) which feeds on field beans (Vicia faba) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), and the peach potato aphid/green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) a widespread pest of a large number of crops. Despite removal of E. europaeus from hedgerows and woodlands in the past, its present populations appear stable.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-8621621,euonymus-europaeus,forest-resources,monography,species-description,united-kingdom},
  number = {1}
}
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