On the Age of the Sun's Heat. Thomson Lord Kelvin, W. 5:388–393.
On the Age of the Sun's Heat [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The second great law of thermodynamics involves a certain principle of irreversible action in Nature. It is thus shown that, although mechanical energy is indestructible, there is a universal tendency to its dissipation, which produces gradual augmentation and diffusion of heat, cessation of motion, and exhaustion of potential energy through the material universe. [1] The result would inevitably be a state of universal rest and death, if the universe were finite and left to obey existing laws. But it is impossible to conceive a limit to the extent of matter in the universe; and therefore science points rather to an endless progress, through an endless space, of action involving the transformation of potential energy into palpable motion and thence into heat, than to a single finite mechanism, running down like a clock, and stopping for ever. It is also impossible to conceive either the beginning or the continuance of life, without an overruling creative power; and, therefore, no conclusions of dynamical science regarding the future condition of the earth can be held to give dispiriting views as to the destiny of the race of intelligent beings by which it is at present inhabited. The object proposed in the present article is an application of these general principles to the discovery of probable limits to the periods of time, past and future, during which the sun can be reckoned on as a source of heat and light. The subject will be discussed under three heads: – I. The secular cooling of the sun. II. The present temperature of the sun. III. The origin and total amount of the sun's heat.
@article{thomsonlordkelvinAgeSunHeat1862,
  title = {On the Age of the Sun's Heat},
  author = {Thomson Lord Kelvin, William},
  date = {1862-03},
  journaltitle = {Macmillan's Magazine},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {388--393},
  url = {https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=6025215482638715892},
  abstract = {The second great law of thermodynamics involves a certain principle of irreversible action in Nature. It is thus shown that, although mechanical energy is indestructible, there is a universal tendency to its dissipation, which produces gradual augmentation and diffusion of heat, cessation of motion, and exhaustion of potential energy through the material universe. [1] The result would inevitably be a state of universal rest and death, if the universe were finite and left to obey existing laws. But it is impossible to conceive a limit to the extent of matter in the universe; and therefore science points rather to an endless progress, through an endless space, of action involving the transformation of potential energy into palpable motion and thence into heat, than to a single finite mechanism, running down like a clock, and stopping for ever. It is also impossible to conceive either the beginning or the continuance of life, without an overruling creative power; and, therefore, no conclusions of dynamical science regarding the future condition of the earth can be held to give dispiriting views as to the destiny of the race of intelligent beings by which it is at present inhabited.

The object proposed in the present article is an application of these general principles to the discovery of probable limits to the periods of time, past and future, during which the sun can be reckoned on as a source of heat and light. The subject will be discussed under three heads: -- 

 I. The secular cooling of the sun. II. The present temperature of the sun. III. The origin and total amount of the sun's heat.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-12587819,communicating-uncertainty,energy,science-ethics,science-history,sun,thermodynamics,uncertainty,unknown}
}
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