Cryptic or Mystic? Glacial Tree Refugia in Northern Europe. Tzedakis, P. C.; Emerson, B. C.; and Hewitt, G. M. 28(12):696–704.
Cryptic or Mystic? Glacial Tree Refugia in Northern Europe [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
We review the case for Late Pleniglacial cryptic tree refugia in northern Europe. We examine macrofossil, pollen, and genetic data, and potential glacial tree distributions. We show that temperate trees were absent north of 45°N during the Late Pleniglacial. We suggest that calls to reduce estimates of migration rates for temperate trees are premature. Here, we examine the evidence for tree refugia in northern Europe during the Late Pleniglacial (LPG) interval of maximum tree-range contraction. Our review highlights the often equivocal nature of genetic data and a tendency to overestimate potential tree distributions due to warm climate-model bias, and also reveals a convergence of macrofossil and pollen evidence. What emerges is the absence of temperate trees north of 45°N and a west-east (W-E) asymmetry in boreal tree distribution, with a treeless Western Europe north of 46°N, while restricted boreal populations persisted in Eastern Europe up to 49°N, and higher latitudes east of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet. These results have implications for current thinking on European genetic diversity patterns, species migration capacity, and conservation strategies.
@article{tzedakisCrypticMysticGlacial2013,
  title = {Cryptic or Mystic? {{Glacial}} Tree Refugia in Northern {{Europe}}},
  author = {Tzedakis, P. C. and Emerson, B. C. and Hewitt, G. M.},
  date = {2013-12},
  journaltitle = {Trends in Ecology \& Evolution},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {696--704},
  issn = {0169-5347},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tree.2013.09.001},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.09.001},
  abstract = {We review the case for Late Pleniglacial cryptic tree refugia in northern Europe. We examine macrofossil, pollen, and genetic data, and potential glacial tree distributions. We show that temperate trees were absent north of 45°N during the Late Pleniglacial. We suggest that calls to reduce estimates of migration rates for temperate trees are premature. Here, we examine the evidence for tree refugia in northern Europe during the Late Pleniglacial (LPG) interval of maximum tree-range contraction. Our review highlights the often equivocal nature of genetic data and a tendency to overestimate potential tree distributions due to warm climate-model bias, and also reveals a convergence of macrofossil and pollen evidence. What emerges is the absence of temperate trees north of 45°N and a west-east (W-E) asymmetry in boreal tree distribution, with a treeless Western Europe north of 46°N, while restricted boreal populations persisted in Eastern Europe up to 49°N, and higher latitudes east of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet. These results have implications for current thinking on European genetic diversity patterns, species migration capacity, and conservation strategies.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-12699361,forest-resources,glacial,northern-europe,refugia},
  number = {12}
}
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