Co-localized neuropeptides conopressin and ALA-PRO-GLY-TRP-NH2 have antagonistic effects on the vas deferens of lymnaea. Van Golen, F., Li, K., De Lange, R., Van Kesteren, R., Van Der Schors, R., & Geraerts, W. Neuroscience, 69(4):1275–1287, dec, 1995.
Co-localized neuropeptides conopressin and ALA-PRO-GLY-TRP-NH2 have antagonistic effects on the vas deferens of lymnaea [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
We examined functional aspects of co-localization of neuropeptides involved in the regulation of male copulation behaviour in the simultaneous hermaphrodite snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The copulation behaviour is controlled by several types of peptidergic neurons that include a cluster of neurons in the anterior lobe of the right cerebral ganglion. All anterior lobe neurons express the gene encoding Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), and a subset of neurons also express the vasopressin-related conopressin gene. Immunocytochemical and peptide chemical experiments show that both APGWamide and conopressin are transported to the penis complex and the vas deferens via the penis nerve. Co-localization of the two peptides was also observed in some, but not all, axon bundles that run along the vas deferens. APGWamide and conopressin were structurally identified from the penis complex with vas deferens. Conopressin excites the vas deferens in vitro, whereas APGWamide inhibits the excitatory effects of conopressin, both in a dose-dependent fashion. We propose that the antagonistic effects of these peptides on the vas deferens underlie its peristalsis Thus, these peptides play an important role in the control of ejaculation of semen during copulation. \textcopyright 1995 IBRO.
@article{VanGolen1995,
abstract = {We examined functional aspects of co-localization of neuropeptides involved in the regulation of male copulation behaviour in the simultaneous hermaphrodite snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The copulation behaviour is controlled by several types of peptidergic neurons that include a cluster of neurons in the anterior lobe of the right cerebral ganglion. All anterior lobe neurons express the gene encoding Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), and a subset of neurons also express the vasopressin-related conopressin gene. Immunocytochemical and peptide chemical experiments show that both APGWamide and conopressin are transported to the penis complex and the vas deferens via the penis nerve. Co-localization of the two peptides was also observed in some, but not all, axon bundles that run along the vas deferens. APGWamide and conopressin were structurally identified from the penis complex with vas deferens. Conopressin excites the vas deferens in vitro, whereas APGWamide inhibits the excitatory effects of conopressin, both in a dose-dependent fashion. We propose that the antagonistic effects of these peptides on the vas deferens underlie its peristalsis Thus, these peptides play an important role in the control of ejaculation of semen during copulation. {\textcopyright} 1995 IBRO.},
author = {{Van Golen}, F.A. and Li, K.W. and {De Lange}, R.P.J. and {Van Kesteren}, R.E. and {Van Der Schors}, R.C. and Geraerts, W.P.M.},
doi = {10.1016/0306-4522(95)00311-6},
issn = {03064522},
journal = {Neuroscience},
keywords = {bioassay,co-transmitters,copulation behaviour,hermaphrodite snail,peristalsis},
month = {dec},
number = {4},
pages = {1275--1287},
title = {{Co-localized neuropeptides conopressin and ALA-PRO-GLY-TRP-NH2 have antagonistic effects on the vas deferens of lymnaea}},
url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0306452295003116 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0306452295003116},
volume = {69},
year = {1995}
}
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