Unimodal and cross-modal prediction is enhanced in musicians. Vassena, E., Kochman, K., Latomme, J., & Verguts, T. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 6:7, NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016.
Unimodal and cross-modal prediction is enhanced in musicians [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Musical training involves exposure to complex auditory and visual stimuli, memorization of elaborate sequences, and extensive motor rehearsal. It has been hypothesized that such multifaceted training may be associated with differences in basic cognitive functions, such as prediction, potentially translating to a facilitation in expert musicians. Moreover, such differences might generalize to non-auditory stimuli. This study was designed to test both hypotheses. We implemented a cross-modal attentional cueing task with auditory and visual stimuli, where a target was preceded by compatible or incompatible cues in mainly compatible (80% compatible, predictable) or random blocks (50% compatible, unpredictable). This allowed for the testing of prediction skills in musicians and controls. Musicians showed increased sensitivity to the statistical structure of the block, expressed as advantage for compatible trials (disadvantage for incompatible trials), but only in the mainly compatible (predictable) blocks. Controls did not show this pattern. The effect held within modalities (auditory, visual), across modalities, and when controlling for short-term memory capacity. These results reveal a striking enhancement in cross-modal prediction in musicians in a very basic cognitive task.
@article{7235073,
  abstract     = {Musical training involves exposure to complex auditory and visual stimuli, memorization of elaborate sequences, and extensive motor rehearsal. It has been hypothesized that such multifaceted training may be associated with differences in basic cognitive functions, such as prediction, potentially translating to a facilitation in expert musicians. Moreover, such differences might generalize to non-auditory stimuli. This study was designed to test both hypotheses. We implemented a cross-modal attentional cueing task with auditory and visual stimuli, where a target was preceded by compatible or incompatible cues in mainly compatible (80% compatible, predictable) or random blocks (50% compatible, unpredictable). This allowed for the testing of prediction skills in musicians and controls. Musicians showed increased sensitivity to the statistical structure of the block, expressed as advantage for compatible trials (disadvantage for incompatible trials), but only in the mainly compatible (predictable) blocks. Controls did not show this pattern. The effect held within modalities (auditory, visual), across modalities, and when controlling for short-term memory capacity. These results reveal a striking enhancement in cross-modal prediction in musicians in a very basic cognitive task.},
  articleno    = {25225},
  author       = {Vassena, Eliana and Kochman, Katty and Latomme, Julie and Verguts, Tom},
  issn         = {2045-2322},
  journal      = {SCIENTIFIC REPORTS},
  keywords     = {BEHAVIOR,PERFORMANCE,BENEFIT,ERRORS,TASK,PERCEPTION,BRAIN PLASTICITY,OPERA HYPOTHESIS,MUSICAL EXPERTISE},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {7},
  publisher    = {NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP},
  title        = {Unimodal and cross-modal prediction is enhanced in musicians},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25225},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2016},
}

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