A bed of thorns: Female leaders and the self-reinforcing cycle of illegitimacy. Vial, A. C., Napier, J. L., & Brescoll, V. L. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3):400–414, June, 2016. Publisher: Elsevier Science
A bed of thorns: Female leaders and the self-reinforcing cycle of illegitimacy [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
In an attempt to explain why the gender gap in leadership positions persists, we propose a model centered on legitimacy. When women hold powerful positions, they have a harder time than men eliciting respect and admiration (i.e., status) from subordinates. As a result, female power-holders are seen as less legitimate than male power-holders. Unless they are able to legitimize their role, relative illegitimacy will prompt a variety of consequences such as more negative subordinate behavior and reduced cooperation when the leader is a woman. Subordinate rejection will likely put female leaders in a precarious mindset, and trigger negative responses toward subordinates; such behavior can confirm negative expectations of female leaders and further undermine female authority in a self-reinforcing cycle of illegitimacy. Leader or organizational features that enhance status attributions and/or lower subordinates' perceptions of power differentials may increase legitimacy for women in leadership roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
@article{vial_bed_2016,
	title = {A bed of thorns: {Female} leaders and the self-reinforcing cycle of illegitimacy},
	volume = {27},
	issn = {1048-9843},
	url = {http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2016-02047-001&site=ehost-live},
	doi = {10.1016/j.leaqua.2015.12.004},
	abstract = {In an attempt to explain why the gender gap in leadership positions persists, we propose a model centered on legitimacy. When women hold powerful positions, they have a harder time than men eliciting respect and admiration (i.e., status) from subordinates. As a result, female power-holders are seen as less legitimate than male power-holders. Unless they are able to legitimize their role, relative illegitimacy will prompt a variety of consequences such as more negative subordinate behavior and reduced cooperation when the leader is a woman. Subordinate rejection will likely put female leaders in a precarious mindset, and trigger negative responses toward subordinates; such behavior can confirm negative expectations of female leaders and further undermine female authority in a self-reinforcing cycle of illegitimacy. Leader or organizational features that enhance status attributions and/or lower subordinates' perceptions of power differentials may increase legitimacy for women in leadership roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)},
	number = {3},
	journal = {The Leadership Quarterly},
	author = {Vial, Andrea C. and Napier, Jaime L. and Brescoll, Victoria L.},
	month = jun,
	year = {2016},
	note = {Publisher: Elsevier Science},
	keywords = {Gender, Gender Gap, Human Females, Interpersonal Control, Leadership, Legitimacy, Power, Status},
	pages = {400--414},
}

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