Reproducible induction of early afterdepolarizations and torsade de pointes arrhythmias by d-sotalol and pacing in dogs with chronic atrioventricular block. Vos, M., Verduyn, S., Gorgels, A., Lipcsei, G., & Wellens, H. j-C, 91(3):864--72, 1995.
bibtex   
@Article{RSM:Vos95,
  author =       "M.A. Vos and S.C. Verduyn and A.P. Gorgels and G.C.
                 Lipcsei and H.J. Wellens",
  title =        "Reproducible induction of early afterdepolarizations
                 and torsade de pointes arrhythmias by d-sotalol and
                 pacing in dogs with chronic atrioventricular block",
  journal =      j-C,
  year =         "1995",
  volume =       "91",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "864--72",
  robnote =      "It was the purpose of this study to create an animal
                 model with a high incidence of reproducible TdP that
                 occurs under clinically relevant circumstances.
                 Experiments were performed in anesthetized dogs that
                 had been in chronic atrioventricular block for 9 +/- 6
                 weeks. TdP inducibility was attempted using different
                 pacing modes before and after the administration of 2
                 mg/kg d-sotalol. d-Sotalol increased the cycle length
                 of the idioventricular rhythm (1475 +/- 460 to 1730 +/-
                 570 ms, P < .01) and the QT time (390 +/- 65 to 480 +/-
                 85 ms, P < .01). In 10\% of the experiments, spontaneous
                 TdP occurred after d- sotalol. Our animal model shows a
                 high incidence of reproducible acquired TdP
                 arrhythmias, allowing study of the mechanism and
                 treatment of TdP. TdP induction was related to the
                 combination of a slow ventricular rate, the
                 prolongation of QT time, a sudden induced rate change
                 that often required two or more cycle length changes,
                 and the presence of early afterdepolarizations. LQTS.",
}
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