A Canadian Biomass Inventory: Feedstocks for a Bio-Based Economy. Wood, S. M. & Layzell, D. B. .
A Canadian Biomass Inventory: Feedstocks for a Bio-Based Economy [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Executive Summary. A detailed analysis was carried out to assess the capacity of Canada's biological resources - in particular, agriculture and forestry - to support a bio-based economy. In a bio-based economy, the agriculture and forestry sectors are involved in the large-scale production of bio-based energy (e.g. fuels), industrial chemicals and feed-stocks, in addition to the production of food, feed and fibre. The analysis explored Forest Production, Agricultural Production and Municipal Waste streams. Key findings of the analysis include: (1) Land Area: Of the 998 M ha of land in Canada, about 42\,% is forested, and about 25\,% (245 M ha) is considered Timber Productive Forest. A further 6.8\,% (67.5 M ha) of Canada is agricultural land, of which 36.4 M ha (3.6%) is cropland. (2) Standing Biomass / Bio-energy stock: The 245 M ha of Timber Productive Forest in Canada has a biomass carbon stock of about 15,835 Mt C. This resource has an energy content (566 EJ) that is equal to 69 years of Canada's current energy demand that is met by fossil fuels (8.24 EJ/yr). (3) Annual Harvest: Each year, the biomass harvest from Canada's forestry and agricultural sectors is about 143 Mt C, an amount of carbon that is similar to the atmospheric emissions of carbon from fossil fuel use in Canada (about 150 Mt C/yr in 1998): (3a) The energy content of the annual biomass harvest in Canada (5.1 EJ/yr) is equal to 62\,% of the energy derived from fossil fuel combustion; (3b) A 25\,% increase in forestry and agricultural production in Canada could provide about 1.25 EJ/yr in biomass energy, an amount equivalent to about 15\,% of the energy that Canada now gets from fossil fuels. (4) Residual or Waste Biomass: There are large residual or waste biomass carbon streams associated with the existing agriculture and forestry, and coming from municipalities: (4a) Of the $>$66 Mt C/yr in the residual or waste biomass carbon stream, about 60 Mt C/yr may be considered an 'available' feedstock for a bio-based economy. This represents about 42\,% of the entire forestry and agricultural harvest; (4b) The energy content of this biomass resource, conservatively calculated to range from 1.5 EJ/yr to 2.2 EJ/yr, is equivalent to between 18\,% and 27\,% of Canada's current energy demand that is met by fossil fuels (8.24 EJ/yr). This study illustrates the major potential that Canada has to utilize its vast forestry and agricultural resources to provide a renewable and sustainable supply of bio-based energy, chemicals an materials to help meet the needs of society. Such a bio-based economy would help the nation meet its international climate change commitments while stimulating the rural economy and encouraging innovation and economic growth. Certainly, when it comes to a bio-based economy, Canada has a 'Green Advantage' relative to other developed countries of the world.

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