Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. Yang, B. & Wyman, C., E. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 2(1):26-40, 1, 2008.
Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol [pdf]Paper  Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Together with 106 farmers who started growing Jatropha (Jatropha curcas\nL.) in 20042006, this research sought to increase the knowledge around\nthe real-life experience of Jatropha farming in the southern India\nstates of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Launched as an alternative for\ndiesel in India, Jatropha has been promoted as a non-edible plant that\ncould grow on poor soils, yield oil-rich seeds for production of\nbio-diesel, and not compete directly with food production. Through\ninterviews with the farmers, information was gathered regarding their\nsocio-economic situation, the implementation and performance of their\nJatropha plantations, and their reasons for continuing or discontinuing\nJatropha cultivation. Results reveal that 82% of the farmers had\nsubstituted former cropland for their Jatropha cultivation. By 2010,\n85% (n = 90) of the farmers who cultivated Jatropha in 2004 had\nstopped. Cultivating the crop did not give the economic returns the\nfarmers anticipated, mainly due to a lack of information about the crop\nand its maintenance during cultivation and due to water scarcity. A\nmajority of the farmers irrigated and applied fertilizer, and even\npesticides. Many problems experienced by the farmers were due to limited\nknowledge about cultivating Jatropha caused by poor planning and\nimplementation of the national Jatropha program. Extension services,\nsubsidies, and other support were not provided as promised. The farmers\nwho continued cultivation had means of income other than Jatropha and\nheld hopes of a future Jatropha market. The lack of market structures,\nsuch as purchase agreements and buyers, as well as a low retail price\nfor the seeds, were frequently stated as barriers to Jatropha\ncultivation. For Jatropha biodiesel to perform well, efforts are needed\nto improve yield levels and stability through genetic improvements and\ndrought tolerance, as well as agriculture extension services to support\nadoption of the crop. Government programs will -probably be more\neffective if implementing biodiesel production is conjoined with\nstimulating the demand for Jatropha biodiesel. To avoid food-biofuel\ncompetition, additional measures may be needed such as land-use\nrestrictions for Jatropha producers and taxes on biofuels or biofuel\nfeedstocks to improve the competitiveness of the food sector compared to\nthe bioenergy sector. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry and John\nWiley & Sons, Ltd

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