Environmental factors and spatial scale influence shorebirds' responses to human disturbance. Yasue, M. Biological Conservation, 128(1):47–54, February, 2006.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
The extent of a shorebird's response to a human disturbance depends on the associated energetic or predation risk costs. These costs are influenced by a suite of environmental variables, operating at several temporal and spatial scales. Here, I measured prey availability, distance to forest cover, cloud cover, and wind speed, in addition to human and shorebird densities to examine how human presence affected habitat choice, relative to these environmental variables, at Pachena Beach, British Columbia. In a standardised experiment, I also approached feeding flocks to determine if environmental factors influenced the time take for shorebirds to resume feeding. Binary logistic models suggested that people did not displace shorebirds. Instead, shorebirds were preferentially selecting areas further from forest cover that may have had lower predation risk. The time taken for shorebirds to resume feeding after a human disturbance was greater in the morning and in areas of low prey availability. This suggests that shorebirds respond more to a disturbance when the foraging cost is lower indicating that behavioural responses may not necessarily reflect the potential fitness costs of human disturbance. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
@article{yasue_environmental_2006,
	title = {Environmental factors and spatial scale influence shorebirds' responses to human disturbance},
	volume = {128},
	shorttitle = {Environmental factors and spatial scale influence shorebirds' responses to human disturbance},
	doi = {10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.015},
	abstract = {The extent of a shorebird's response to a human disturbance depends on the associated energetic or predation risk costs. These costs are influenced by a suite of environmental variables, operating at several temporal and spatial scales. Here, I measured prey availability, distance to forest cover, cloud cover, and wind speed, in addition to human and shorebird densities to examine how human presence affected habitat choice, relative to these environmental variables, at Pachena Beach, British Columbia. In a standardised experiment, I also approached feeding flocks to determine if environmental factors influenced the time take for shorebirds to resume feeding. Binary logistic models suggested that people did not displace shorebirds. Instead, shorebirds were preferentially selecting areas further from forest cover that may have had lower predation risk. The time taken for shorebirds to resume feeding after a human disturbance was greater in the morning and in areas of low prey availability. This suggests that shorebirds respond more to a disturbance when the foraging cost is lower indicating that behavioural responses may not necessarily reflect the potential fitness costs of human disturbance. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
	number = {1},
	journal = {Biological Conservation},
	author = {Yasue, M.},
	month = feb,
	year = {2006},
	pages = {47--54},
}
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