Museums, collectors, and value manipulation: tax fraud through donation of antiquities. Yates, D. Journal of Financial Crime, 23(1):173–186, January, 2015.
Museums, collectors, and value manipulation: tax fraud through donation of antiquities [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Purpose This paper aims to discuss the key aspects of the international trade in antiquities and the practice of philanthropic donation of objects to museums that allow for certain types of tax deduction manipulation, using a case of tax deduction manipulation from Australia and a case of tax fraud from the United States as examples. Design/methodology/approach Two thoroughly researched case studies are presented which illustrate the particular features of current and past antiquities donation incentivisation schemes which leave them open to manipulation and fraud. Findings The valuation of antiquities is subjective and problematic, and the operations of both the antiquities market and the museums sector are traditionally opaque. Because of this, tax incentivisation of antiquities donations is susceptible to fraud. Originality/value This paper presents the mechanisms of the antiquities market and museum world to an audience that is not familiar with it. It then clearly demonstrates how the traditional practices of this world can be manipulated for the purposes of tax fraud. Two useful case studies are presented.
@article{yates_museums_2015,
	title = {Museums, collectors, and value manipulation: tax fraud through donation of antiquities},
	volume = {23},
	issn = {1359-0790},
	shorttitle = {Museums, collectors, and value manipulation},
	url = {https://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-11-2014-0051},
	doi = {10.1108/JFC-11-2014-0051},
	abstract = {Purpose This paper aims to discuss the key aspects of the international trade in antiquities and the practice of philanthropic donation of objects to museums that allow for certain types of tax deduction manipulation, using a case of tax deduction manipulation from Australia and a case of tax fraud from the United States as examples. Design/methodology/approach Two thoroughly researched case studies are presented which illustrate the particular features of current and past antiquities donation incentivisation schemes which leave them open to manipulation and fraud. Findings The valuation of antiquities is subjective and problematic, and the operations of both the antiquities market and the museums sector are traditionally opaque. Because of this, tax incentivisation of antiquities donations is susceptible to fraud. Originality/value This paper presents the mechanisms of the antiquities market and museum world to an audience that is not familiar with it. It then clearly demonstrates how the traditional practices of this world can be manipulated for the purposes of tax fraud. Two useful case studies are presented.},
	number = {1},
	urldate = {2020-04-02},
	journal = {Journal of Financial Crime},
	author = {Yates, Donna},
	month = jan,
	year = {2015},
	keywords = {Antiquities, Appraisal, Donations, Fraud, Museums, Tax deductions},
	pages = {173--186}
}

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