Noninvasive oxygen partial pressure measurement of human body fluids in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. Zaharchuk, G.; Busse, R. F; Rosenthal, G.; Manley, G. T; Glenn, O. A; and Dillon, W. P Academic Radiology, 13(8):1016--1024, August, 2006.
Noninvasive oxygen partial pressure measurement of human body fluids in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The oxygen partial pressure (pO2) of human body fluids reflects the oxygenation status of surrounding tissues. All existing fluid pO2 measurements are invasive, requiring either microelectrode/optode placement or fluid removal. The purpose of this study is to develop a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging method to measure the pO2 of human body fluids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed an imaging paradigm that exploits the paramagnetism of molecular oxygen to create quantitative images of fluid oxygenation. A single-shot fast spin echo pulse sequence was modified to minimize artifacts from motion, fluid flow, and partial volume. Longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 = 1/T1) was measured with a time-efficient nonequilibrium saturation recovery method and correlated with pO2 measured in phantoms. RESULTS: pO2 images of human and fetal cerebrospinal fluid, bladder urine, and vitreous humor are presented and quantitative oxygenation levels are compared with prior literature estimates, where available. Significant pO2 increases are shown in cerebrospinal fluid and vitreous following 100% oxygen inhalation. Potential errors due to temperature, fluid flow, and partial volume are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive measurements of human body fluid pO2 in vivo are presented, which yield reasonable values based on prior literature estimates. This rapid imaging-based measurement of fluid oxygenation may provide insight into normal physiology as well as changes due to disease or during treatment.
@article{zaharchuk_noninvasive_2006,
	title = {Noninvasive oxygen partial pressure measurement of human body fluids in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging},
	volume = {13},
	issn = {1076-6332},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16843855},
	doi = {10.1016/j.acra.2006.04.016},
	abstract = {RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The oxygen partial pressure (pO2) of human body fluids reflects the oxygenation status of surrounding tissues. All existing fluid pO2 measurements are invasive, requiring either microelectrode/optode placement or fluid removal. The purpose of this study is to develop a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging method to measure the pO2 of human body fluids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed an imaging paradigm that exploits the paramagnetism of molecular oxygen to create quantitative images of fluid oxygenation. A single-shot fast spin echo pulse sequence was modified to minimize artifacts from motion, fluid flow, and partial volume. Longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 = 1/T1) was measured with a time-efficient nonequilibrium saturation recovery method and correlated with pO2 measured in phantoms. RESULTS: pO2 images of human and fetal cerebrospinal fluid, bladder urine, and vitreous humor are presented and quantitative oxygenation levels are compared with prior literature estimates, where available. Significant pO2 increases are shown in cerebrospinal fluid and vitreous following 100\% oxygen inhalation. Potential errors due to temperature, fluid flow, and partial volume are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive measurements of human body fluid pO2 in vivo are presented, which yield reasonable values based on prior literature estimates. This rapid imaging-based measurement of fluid oxygenation may provide insight into normal physiology as well as changes due to disease or during treatment.},
	number = {8},
	urldate = {2010-06-17},
	journal = {Academic Radiology},
	author = {Zaharchuk, Greg and Busse, Reed F and Rosenthal, Guy and Manley, Geoffery T and Glenn, Orit A and Dillon, William P},
	month = aug,
	year = {2006},
	pmid = {16843855},
	keywords = {hyperoxia, T1, CSF},
	pages = {1016--1024},
	file = {Noninvasive oxygen partial pressure measurement of... [Acad Radiol. 2006] - PubMed result:/Users/nickb/Zotero/storage/9ZU557TH/16843855.html:text/html;zaharchuk2006.pdf:/Users/nickb/Zotero/storage/4CIRGKAG/zaharchuk2006.pdf:application/pdf}
}
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