Expanding the catalog of cas genes with metagenomes. Zhang, Q., Doak, T., G., & Ye, Y. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(4):2448-2459, 2014.
Expanding the catalog of cas genes with metagenomes [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
The CRISPR (clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas adaptive immune system is an important defense system in bacteria, providing targeted defense against invasions of foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of CRISPR loci and cas (CRISPR-associated) genes: sequence segments of invaders are incorporated into host genomes at CRISPR loci to generate specificity, while adjacent cas genes encode proteins that mediate the defense process. We pursued an integrated approach to identifying putative cas genes from genomes and metagenomes, combining similarity searches with genomic neighborhood analysis. Application of our approach to bacterial genomes and human microbiome datasets allowed us to significantly expand the collection of cas genes: the sequence space of the Cas9 family, the key player in the recently engineered RNA-guided platforms for genome editing in eukaryotes, is expanded by at least two-fold with metagenomic datasets. We found genes in cas loci encoding other functions, for example, toxins and antitoxins, confirming the recently discovered potential of coupling between adaptive immunity and the dormancy/suicide systems. We further identified 24 novel Cas families; one novel family contains 20 proteins, all identified from the human microbiome datasets, illustrating the importance of metagenomics projects in expanding the diversity of cas genes. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.
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 year = {2014},
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 keywords = {Bacterial; Genome,Bacterial; Humans; Metagenome; Metagenomics; Micr,CRISPR-Associated Proteins; CRISPR-Cas Systems; F,adaptive immunity; article; bacterial gene; bacte,antitoxin; bacterial RNA; cellular apoptosis susce},
 pages = {2448-2459},
 volume = {42},
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 abstract = {The CRISPR (clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas adaptive immune system is an important defense system in bacteria, providing targeted defense against invasions of foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of CRISPR loci and cas (CRISPR-associated) genes: sequence segments of invaders are incorporated into host genomes at CRISPR loci to generate specificity, while adjacent cas genes encode proteins that mediate the defense process. We pursued an integrated approach to identifying putative cas genes from genomes and metagenomes, combining similarity searches with genomic neighborhood analysis. Application of our approach to bacterial genomes and human microbiome datasets allowed us to significantly expand the collection of cas genes: the sequence space of the Cas9 family, the key player in the recently engineered RNA-guided platforms for genome editing in eukaryotes, is expanded by at least two-fold with metagenomic datasets. We found genes in cas loci encoding other functions, for example, toxins and antitoxins, confirming the recently discovered potential of coupling between adaptive immunity and the dormancy/suicide systems. We further identified 24 novel Cas families; one novel family contains 20 proteins, all identified from the human microbiome datasets, illustrating the importance of metagenomics projects in expanding the diversity of cas genes. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Zhang, Q and Doak, T G and Ye, Y},
 journal = {Nucleic Acids Research},
 number = {4}
}

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