Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H 2 /N 2 Jet Flames. Zhao, X., Haworth, D., C., & Huckaby, E., D. Combustion Science and Technology, 184(5):676-693, 2012.
Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H 2 /N 2 Jet Flames [pdf]Paper  Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H 2 /N 2 Jet Flames [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 (''syngas'') flames are simulated using a\ntransported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A\nconsistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to\nsolve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard\nk-epsilon turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean\nminimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to\nvariations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat\ntransfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are\nexplored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms\ntemperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well,\nand captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our\nresults and the literature suggest that further improvements can be\nrealized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat\ntransfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects\nare relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is\nimportant for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been\ndeveloped specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H-2\nperform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this\npurpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence-chemistry\ninteractions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a\nlarge difference in the results, within reasonable limits.\nSupplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the\npublisher's online edition of Combustion Science and Technology to view\nthe free supplemental file.

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