Insights into an Extensively Fragmented Eukaryotic Genome: De Novo Genome Sequencing of the Multinuclear Ciliate Uroleptopsis citrina. Zheng, W., Wang, C., Yan, Y., Gao, F., Doak, T., G., & Song, W. Genome Biology and Evolution, 10(3):883-894, Oxford University Press, 2018.
abstract   bibtex   
Ciliated protists are a large group of single-celled eukaryotes with separate germline and somatic nuclei in each cell. The somatic genome is developed from the zygotic nucleus through a series of chromosomal rearrangements, including fragmentation, DNA elimination, de novo telomere addition, and DNA amplification. This unique feature makes them perfect models for research in genome biology and evolution. However, genomic research of ciliates has been limited to a few species, owing to problems with DNA contamination and obstacles in cultivation. Here, we introduce a method combining telomere-primer PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing, which can reduce DNA contamination and obtain genomic data efficiently. Based on this method, we report a draft somatic genome of a multimacronuclear ciliate, Uroleptopsis citrina. 1) The telomeric sequence in U. citrina is confirmed to be C4A4C4A4C4 by directly blunt-end cloning. 2) Genomic analysis of the resulting chromosomes shows a “one-gene one-chromosome” pattern, with a small number of multiple-gene chromosomes. 3) Amino acid usage is analyzed, and reassignment of stop codons is confirmed. 4) Chromosomal analysis shows an obvious asymmetrical GC skew and high bias between A and T in the subtelomeric regions of the sense-strand, with the detection of an 11-bp high AT motif region in the 3′ subtelomeric region. 5) The subtelomeric sequence also has an obvious 40 nt strand oscillation of nucleotide ratio. 6) In the 5′ subtelomeric region of the coding strand, the distribution of potential TATA-box regions is illustrated, which accumulate between 30 and 50 nt. This work provides a valuable reference for genomic research and furthers our understanding of the dynamic nature of unicellular eukaryotic genomes.
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 title = {Insights into an Extensively Fragmented Eukaryotic Genome: De Novo Genome Sequencing of the Multinuclear Ciliate Uroleptopsis citrina},
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 year = {2018},
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 abstract = {Ciliated protists are a large group of single-celled eukaryotes with separate germline and somatic nuclei in each cell. The somatic genome is developed from the zygotic nucleus through a series of chromosomal rearrangements, including fragmentation, DNA elimination, de novo telomere addition, and DNA amplification. This unique feature makes them perfect models for research in genome biology and evolution. However, genomic research of ciliates has been limited to a few species, owing to problems with DNA contamination and obstacles in cultivation. Here, we introduce a method combining telomere-primer PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing, which can reduce DNA contamination and obtain genomic data efficiently. Based on this method, we report a draft somatic genome of a multimacronuclear ciliate, Uroleptopsis citrina. 1) The telomeric sequence in U. citrina is confirmed to be C4A4C4A4C4 by directly blunt-end cloning. 2) Genomic analysis of the resulting chromosomes shows a “one-gene one-chromosome” pattern, with a small number of multiple-gene chromosomes. 3) Amino acid usage is analyzed, and reassignment of stop codons is confirmed. 4) Chromosomal analysis shows an obvious asymmetrical GC skew and high bias between A and T in the subtelomeric regions of the sense-strand, with the detection of an 11-bp high AT motif region in the 3′ subtelomeric region. 5) The subtelomeric sequence also has an obvious 40 nt strand oscillation of nucleotide ratio. 6) In the 5′ subtelomeric region of the coding strand, the distribution of potential TATA-box regions is illustrated, which accumulate between 30 and 50 nt. This work provides a valuable reference for genomic research and furthers our understanding of the dynamic nature of unicellular eukaryotic genomes.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Zheng, Weibo and Wang, Chundi and Yan, Ying and Gao, Feng and Doak, Thomas G and Song, Weibo},
 journal = {Genome Biology and Evolution},
 number = {3}
}

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