Stability of cellular microstructure in laser powder bed fusion of 316L stainless steel. Bertoli, U. S., MacDonald, B. E., & Schoenung, J. M. Materials Science and Engineering: A, October, 2018.
Stability of cellular microstructure in laser powder bed fusion of 316L stainless steel [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (L-PBF AM) offers great potential for local microstructure control. During this process, solidification occurs in conditions that are far from equilibrium and possesses – in the majority of cases – a strong directionality. In general, the size and morphology of the resulting microstructure is a function of two well-known parameters: the temperature gradient within the liquid phase (G) and the velocity of the solidification front (R). To provide guidance in selecting appropriate, systematically defined, process parameters for L-PBF of 316L stainless steel square pillars, we developed an intentionally simple thermal model to express these two parameters, G and R, as a function of selected process variables (laser scan speed, laser power) and material properties (thermal diffusivity). Results from both microstructural and mechanical characterization of the pillars indicate that high-strength, fully-dense parts with a highly oriented cellular microstructure can be obtained when using significantly different sets of process parameters. Furthermore, despite its simplicity, the numerical model correlates well with experimental evidence and confirms that rather than creating variable microstructures, the process parameter constraints actually lead to a stable cellular microstructure regardless of the wide process window studied.
@article{bertoli_stability_2018,
	title = {Stability of cellular microstructure in laser powder bed fusion of {316L} stainless steel},
	issn = {0921-5093},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509318314230},
	doi = {10.1016/j.msea.2018.10.051},
	abstract = {Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (L-PBF AM) offers great potential for local microstructure control. During this process, solidification occurs in conditions that are far from equilibrium and possesses – in the majority of cases – a strong directionality. In general, the size and morphology of the resulting microstructure is a function of two well-known parameters: the temperature gradient within the liquid phase (G) and the velocity of the solidification front (R). To provide guidance in selecting appropriate, systematically defined, process parameters for L-PBF of 316L stainless steel square pillars, we developed an intentionally simple thermal model to express these two parameters, G and R, as a function of selected process variables (laser scan speed, laser power) and material properties (thermal diffusivity). Results from both microstructural and mechanical characterization of the pillars indicate that high-strength, fully-dense parts with a highly oriented cellular microstructure can be obtained when using significantly different sets of process parameters. Furthermore, despite its simplicity, the numerical model correlates well with experimental evidence and confirms that rather than creating variable microstructures, the process parameter constraints actually lead to a stable cellular microstructure regardless of the wide process window studied.},
	urldate = {2018-10-12},
	journal = {Materials Science and Engineering: A},
	author = {Bertoli, Umberto Scipioni and MacDonald, Benjamin E. and Schoenung, Julie M.},
	month = oct,
	year = {2018},
	keywords = {316L stainless steel, Directional solidification, Microstructure control, Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting},
}

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